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1 year ago

Methods for determining the biomass content of waste

Wolfgang StaberInstitute for Sustainable Waste Management and Technology, University of Leoben, Leoben, Austria, Wolfgang.Staberatmu-leoben.at

Sabine FlammeINFA - Institute for Waste, Waste Water and Infrastructure Management, Ahlen, Germany

Johann FellnerInstitute for Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria

As CO2 emission trading in Europe has been established it is of essential importance to distinguish between biogenic and fossil

emissions. Emissions resulting from bio-fuels and biogenous fractions are categorized as climate-neutral. Determination of

plants using only fossil or bio-fuels is simple but categorization becomes more difficult for plants using a mix of fossil

and biofuel such as solid recovered fuels. In the meantime, different methods for solving this problem have been developed.

Using different approaches and technologies, all of these methods have the same goal: determining the biomass content (biogenic

fraction), for example, in solid recovered fuels or in the off-gas of a mono- or co-incineration plant in order to calculate

the biogenic carbon dioxide emissions. In the following article, the most common methods for determining the biogenic fraction

of fuels, namely the Selective Dissolution Method, the Balance Method and the 14C-Method will be explained in detail.

1 year ago

Modelling and evaluating municipal solid waste management strategies in a mega-city: The case of Ho Chi Minh City

Le ThiKimOanh6

Jacqueline M Bloemhof-Ruwaard2

Joost CL van Buuren3

Jack GAJ van der Vorst2

Wim H Rulkens3

1Van Lang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

2Operations Research and Logistics, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands

3Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands

Le ThiKimOanh, Van Lang University, 45 Nguyen KhacNhu, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Email: lethikimoanhatvanlanguni.edu.vn

Abstract

Ho Chi Minh City is a large city that will become a mega-city in the near future. The city struggles with a rapidly increasing

flow of municipal solid waste and a foreseeable scarcity of land to continue landfilling, the main treatment of municipal

solid waste up to now. Therefore, additional municipal solid waste treatment technologies are needed. The objective of this

article is to support decision-making towards more sustainable and cost-effective municipal solid waste strategies in developing

countries, in particular Vietnam. A quantitative decision support model is developed to optimise the distribution of municipal

solid waste from population areas to treatment plants, the treatment technologies and their capacities for the near future

given available infrastructure and cost factors.

Article Notes

Declaration of conflicting interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

1 year ago

Municipal solid waste management using Geographical Information System aided methods: A mini review

Debishree Khan

Sukha Ranjan Samadder

Department of Environmental Science Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India

Sukha Ranjan Samadder, Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Science Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad-826004,

India. Email: sukh_samadderatyahoo.co.in

Abstract

Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental challenges in developing countries. Many efforts

to reduce and recover the wastes have been made, but still land disposal of solid wastes is the most popular one. Finding

an environmentally sound landfill site is a challenging task. This paper addresses a mini review on various aspects of MSWM

(suitable landfill site selection, route optimization and public acceptance) using the Geographical Information System (GIS)

coupled with other tools. The salient features of each of the integrated tools with GIS are discussed in this paper. It is

also addressed how GIS can help in optimizing routes for collection of solid wastes from transfer stations to disposal sites

to reduce the overall cost of solid waste management. A detailed approach on performing a public acceptance study of a proposed

landfill site is presented in this study. The study will help municipal authorities to identify the most effective method

of MSWM.

Article Notes

Declaration of conflicting interests The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.

Funding This work was supported by the Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad.

1 year ago

An in-depth literature review of the waste electrical and electronic equipment context: Trends and evolution

V P

1 year ago

Seasonal and Diurnal Methane Emissions From a Landfill and Their Regulation By Methane Oxidation

Gunnar B

1 year ago

The Biology of Composting: a Review

M. de BertoldiIstituto di Microbiologia Agraria, Universit

1 year ago

The challenge of electronic waste (e-waste) management in developing countries

O. OsibanjoBasel Convention Regional Centre for Africa for Training and Technology Transfer, Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan,

Nigeria, osibanjoatbaselnigeria.com

I.C. NnoromDepartment of Chemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria

Information and telecommunications technology (ICT) and computer Internet networking has penetrated nearly every aspect of

modern life, and is positively affecting human life even in the most remote areas of the developing countries. The rapid growth

in ICT has led to an improvement in the capacity of computers but simultaneously to a decrease in the products lifetime as

a result of which increasingly large quantities of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste) are generated annually.

ICT development in most developing countries, particularly in Africa, depends more on secondhand or refurbished EEEs most

of which are imported without confirmatory testing for functionality. As a result large quantities of e-waste are presently

being managed in these countries. The challenges facing the developing countries in e-waste management include: an absence

of infrastructure for appropriate waste management, an absence of legislation dealing specifically with e-waste, an absence

of any framework for end-of-life (EoL) product take-back or implementation of extended producer responsibility (EPR). This

study examines these issues as they relate to practices in developing countries with emphasis on the prevailing situation

in Nigeria. Effective management of e-waste in the developing countries demands the implementation of EPR, the establishment

of product reuse through remanufacturing and the introduction of efficient recycling facilities. The implementation of a global

system for the standardization and certification/labelling of secondhand appliances intended for export to developing countries

will be required to control the export of electronic recyclables (e-scarp) in the name of secondhand appliances.

1 year ago

Assessment methods for solid waste management: A literature review

Astrid Allesch

Paul H Brunner

Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Water Quality, Resource and Waste Management, Vienna, Austria

Astrid Allesch, Institute for Water Quality, Resource and Waste Management, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226,

A-1040 Vienna, Austria. Email: astrid.alleschattuwien.ac.at

Abstract

Assessment methods are common tools to support decisions regarding waste management. The objective of this review article

is to provide guidance for the selection of appropriate evaluation methods. For this purpose, frequently used assessment methods

are reviewed, categorised, and summarised. In total, 151 studies have been considered in view of their goals, methodologies,

systems investigated, and results regarding economic, environmental, and social issues. A goal shared by all studies is the

support of stakeholders. Most studies are based on life cycle assessments, multi-criteria-decision-making, cost-benefit analysis,

risk assessments, and benchmarking. Approximately 40% of the reviewed articles are life cycle assessment-based; and more than

50% apply scenario analysis to identify the best waste management options. Most studies focus on municipal solid waste and

consider specific environmental loadings. Economic aspects are considered by approximately 50% of the studies, and only a

small number evaluate social aspects. The choice of system elements and boundaries varies significantly among the studies;

thus, assessment results are sometimes contradictory. Based on the results of this review, we recommend the following considerations

when assessing waste management systems: (i) a mass balance approach based on a rigid input-output analysis of the entire

system, (ii) a goal-oriented evaluation of the results of the mass balance, which takes into account the intended waste management

objectives; and (iii) a transparent and reproducible presentation of the methodology, data, and results.

Article Notes

Declaration of conflicting interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

1 year ago

Wastes could be resources and cities could be mines

Impact Factor:1.297 | Ranking:Engineering, Environmental 30 out of 47 | Environmental Sciences 139 out of 221 | 5-Year Impact Factor:1.526 | 5-Year Ranking:Engineering, Environmental 29 out of 47 | Environmental Sciences 136 out of 221

Source:2014 Journal Citation ReportsĀ® (Thomson Reuters, 2015)