Wolfgang StaberInstitute for Sustainable Waste Management and Technology, University of Leoben, Leoben, Austria, Wolfgang.Staberatmu-leoben.at
Sabine FlammeINFA - Institute for Waste, Waste Water and Infrastructure Management, Ahlen, Germany
Johann FellnerInstitute for Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria
As CO2 emission trading in Europe has been established it is of essential importance to distinguish between biogenic and fossil
emissions. Emissions resulting from bio-fuels and biogenous fractions are categorized as climate-neutral. Determination of
plants using only fossil or bio-fuels is simple but categorization becomes more difficult for plants using a mix of fossil
and biofuel such as solid recovered fuels. In the meantime, different methods for solving this problem have been developed.
Using different approaches and technologies, all of these methods have the same goal: determining the biomass content (biogenic
fraction), for example, in solid recovered fuels or in the off-gas of a mono- or co-incineration plant in order to calculate
the biogenic carbon dioxide emissions. In the following article, the most common methods for determining the biogenic fraction
of fuels, namely the Selective Dissolution Method, the Balance Method and the 14C-Method will be explained in detail.
Jacqueline M Bloemhof-Ruwaard2
Joost CL van Buuren3
Jack GAJ van der Vorst2
Wim H Rulkens3
1Van Lang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
2Operations Research and Logistics, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
3Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Le ThiKimOanh, Van Lang University, 45 Nguyen KhacNhu, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Email: lethikimoanhatvanlanguni.edu.vn
Ho Chi Minh City is a large city that will become a mega-city in the near future. The city struggles with a rapidly increasing
flow of municipal solid waste and a foreseeable scarcity of land to continue landfilling, the main treatment of municipal
solid waste up to now. Therefore, additional municipal solid waste treatment technologies are needed. The objective of this
article is to support decision-making towards more sustainable and cost-effective municipal solid waste strategies in developing
countries, in particular Vietnam. A quantitative decision support model is developed to optimise the distribution of municipal
solid waste from population areas to treatment plants, the treatment technologies and their capacities for the near future
given available infrastructure and cost factors.
Declaration of conflicting interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Sukha Ranjan Samadder
Department of Environmental Science Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India
Sukha Ranjan Samadder, Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Science Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad-826004,
India. Email: sukh_samadderatyahoo.co.in
Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental challenges in developing countries. Many efforts
to reduce and recover the wastes have been made, but still land disposal of solid wastes is the most popular one. Finding
an environmentally sound landfill site is a challenging task. This paper addresses a mini review on various aspects of MSWM
(suitable landfill site selection, route optimization and public acceptance) using the Geographical Information System (GIS)
coupled with other tools. The salient features of each of the integrated tools with GIS are discussed in this paper. It is
also addressed how GIS can help in optimizing routes for collection of solid wastes from transfer stations to disposal sites
to reduce the overall cost of solid waste management. A detailed approach on performing a public acceptance study of a proposed
landfill site is presented in this study. The study will help municipal authorities to identify the most effective method
Declaration of conflicting interests The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.
Funding This work was supported by the Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad.
M. de BertoldiIstituto di Microbiologia Agraria, Universit
O. OsibanjoBasel Convention Regional Centre for Africa for Training and Technology Transfer, Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan,
I.C. NnoromDepartment of Chemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria
Information and telecommunications technology (ICT) and computer Internet networking has penetrated nearly every aspect of
modern life, and is positively affecting human life even in the most remote areas of the developing countries. The rapid growth
in ICT has led to an improvement in the capacity of computers but simultaneously to a decrease in the products lifetime as
a result of which increasingly large quantities of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste) are generated annually.
ICT development in most developing countries, particularly in Africa, depends more on secondhand or refurbished EEEs most
of which are imported without confirmatory testing for functionality. As a result large quantities of e-waste are presently
being managed in these countries. The challenges facing the developing countries in e-waste management include: an absence
of infrastructure for appropriate waste management, an absence of legislation dealing specifically with e-waste, an absence
of any framework for end-of-life (EoL) product take-back or implementation of extended producer responsibility (EPR). This
study examines these issues as they relate to practices in developing countries with emphasis on the prevailing situation
in Nigeria. Effective management of e-waste in the developing countries demands the implementation of EPR, the establishment
of product reuse through remanufacturing and the introduction of efficient recycling facilities. The implementation of a global
system for the standardization and certification/labelling of secondhand appliances intended for export to developing countries
will be required to control the export of electronic recyclables (e-scarp) in the name of secondhand appliances.